Ledges

Ledges are often modified or specially designed to prevent unwanted uses like skateboarding and loitering. From innocent rounded metal protrusions to hostile metal spikes, forms of defensive elements vary from banal to extreme.

“Skateboarding is the obverse of defensive design; it is not an attack on exclusionary architecture but in fact, a symptom, an irreducible component of such architecture.” -- Ocean Howell, "The Poetics of Security: Skateboarding, Urban Design, and the New Public Space", 2001

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