Resources

Online

 

The Current. (March 17, 2015). Defensive architecture is keeping some people out of public spaces. CBC Radio.

 

Dan Lockton (2010). Design with Intent.

 

Needs More Spikes (2017).

 

Nils Norman. Dismal Garden.

Stuart Semple (2018). HostileDesign.org

Vox (Nov 29, 2017). Why cities are full of uncomfortable benches.

 

William H. Whyte (1980). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces.

99% Invisible (July 5, 2016). Unpleasant Design & Hostile Urban Architecture.

Books

 

Interboro (2016). The Arsenal of Exclusion & Inclusion.

 

C. R, Jefferey (1977). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Sage.

Oscar Newman (1972). Defensible Space; Crime Prevention Through Urban Design. New York: Macmillan.

 

Robert Rosenberger (2017). Callous Objects: Designs against the Homeless. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 

Selena Savic & Gordan Savicic (2013). Unpleasant Design.

Articles

Mike Davis (1990) Fortress L.A. City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. London: Verso.

 

Steven Flusty (1994). Building Paranoia: The Proliferation of Interdictory Space and the Erosion of Spatial Justice.

 

Ocean Howell (2001). The Poetics of Security: Skateboarding, Urban Design and the New Public Space. Urban Action.

 

George Kelling & James Q. Wilson (1982). Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety. The Atlantic.

Frank Muraca (2018). Excluding Fast and Slow: Charlottesville’s Long Battle over Public Space. metropolitics.eu

 

James Petty (2016). The London Spikes Controversy: Homelessness, Urban Securitisation and the Question of ‘Hostile Architecture’. International Journal For Crime, Justice And Social Democracy.

Naomi Smith & Peter Walters (2017). Desire lines and defensive architecture in modern urban environments. Urban Studies.

 

Yumiko Hayakawa (2006). Public Benches Turn 'Anti-Homeless' Tokyo's spaces designed to keep people from staying. OhmyNews.

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