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Abbé Pierre - #SoyonsHumains


Nils Norman. Dismal Garden.

Hidden Hostility DC

Stuart Semple (2018).

Vox (Nov 29, 2017). Why cities are full of uncomfortable benches.


William H. Whyte (1980). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces.

99% Invisible (July 5, 2016). Unpleasant Design & Hostile Urban Architecture.



Interboro (2016). The Arsenal of Exclusion & Inclusion.


C. R, Jefferey (1977). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Sage.

Oscar Newman (1972). Defensible Space; Crime Prevention Through Urban Design. New York: Macmillan.


Robert Rosenberger (2017). Callous Objects: Designs against the Homeless. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 

Selena Savic & Gordan Savicic (2013). Unpleasant Design.


Mike Davis (1990) Fortress L.A. City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. London: Verso.


Steven Flusty (1994). Building Paranoia: The Proliferation of Interdictory Space and the Erosion of Spatial Justice.


Ocean Howell (2001). The Poetics of Security: Skateboarding, Urban Design and the New Public Space. Urban Action.


George Kelling & James Q. Wilson (1982). Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety. The Atlantic.


James Petty (2016). The London Spikes Controversy: Homelessness, Urban Securitisation and the Question of ‘Hostile Architecture’. International Journal For Crime, Justice And Social Democracy.

Robert Rosenberger (2019). On hostile design: Theoretical and empirical prospects. Urban Studies.

Naomi Smith & Peter Walters (2017). Desire lines and defensive architecture in modern urban environments. Urban Studies.


Yumiko Hayakawa (2006). Public Benches Turn 'Anti-Homeless' Tokyo's spaces designed to keep people from staying. OhmyNews.

DefensiveTO in the Media


Park People. (2020). The Trouble with Displacement. The Canadian City Parks Report.


Glyn Bowerman. (January 31, 2020). Podcast 043: We are the public realm. Spacing Radio.

Aimé Majeau Beauchamp (November 19, 2019). L'architecture défensive, une architecture qui dérange. ONFR+


Charlotte D'Arcy (August 26, 2019). A major urban design trend is making Toronto less liveable. Local Love.


Amy Fallon (August 19, 2019). What’s behind the rise in defensive design? Equal Times.


Mike Ross & Joeita Gupta (July 17, 2019).  Defensive architecture. Live from Studio 5 on AMI-audio.


Lauren Pelley (July 2, 2019). How 'defensive design' leads to rigid benches, metal spikes, and 'visual violence' in modern cities. CBC News.


Matt Galloway (July 2, 2019). How Defensive Design controls public space in Toronto. CBC's Metro Morning.


Shawn Micallef (June 14, 2019). Defensive, even hostile architecture can be found all over Toronto. The Toronto Star.


Kara Mavros (February 15, 2019). Must Defensive Design Be Hostile? Architectural Record.


Cara Chellew (Spring 2018). Hostile Design Strategies: It's time to tear down our city's spatial barriers. Spacing.


Daniela Germano (April 5, 2018). After backlash, Toronto hospital removes bars aimed at keeping homeless people away. The Candian Press.


Tamar Harris (April 5, 2018). ‘Hostile architecture’ a growing problem for the homeless, advocates say. The Toronto Star.


CBC News (April 4, 2018). UHN apologizes for Toronto General vent grate that's 'hostile' to the homeless. CBC News.


Matt Galloway (March 29, 2018). New cover at sidewalk grate outside Toronto General Hospital. Metro Morning, CBC Radio.


Elizabeth Wallace (March 21, 2018). What's Behind the Uptick in Hostile Architecture? Architectural Digest.


Andrea Lo (December 21, 2017). The debate: Is hostile architecture designing people -- and nature -- out of cities? CNN.

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